Port of Tokyo is one of the largest Japanese seaports and one of the largest seaports in the Pacific Ocean basin having an annual traffic capacity of around 100 million tonnes of cargo and 4,500,000 TEU’s. The port is also an important employer in the area having more than 30,000 employees that provide services to more than 32,000 ships every year.
The Aomi Container Terminal, with a wharf 1,570 meters long and five side-by-side berths (three of which are high-standard berths), is one of the Port of Tokyo’s core container terminals. This terminal has an exclusive terminal on its north side with two berths and a public terminal on its south side with three berths side-by-side.
The Shinagawa Container Terminal opened in 1967 as Japan’s first. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government had managed and administered it as a public container terminal, but since April 2009 it has been managed and administered by TPTC. This terminal, whose wharf extends 745 meters (190 meters of which is the foreign and miscellaneous trade terminal) and has a depth of 10 meters, is mainly used by small container ships on routes to Asia. As the agency designated with managing the wharf, TPTC manages and administers the facility.
The Odaiba Liner Terminal’s wharf has a total length of 1,800 meters and handles products such as fruits and vegetables, lumber, steel and paper. In addition, the terminal is equipped with numerous private sheds and warehouses in the rear, efficiently handles freight across its entirety and plays a central role in the Port of Tokyo.
A small fishing village called Edo existed on the site of the modern Port of Tokyo for centuries. Ota Dokan built Edo Castle there in 1457 at the mouth of the Hirakawa River. As early as 1392, many ships were moving in and out of the?Port of Tokyo’s harbor, and the Medieval Shinagawa Port bustled with commercial activity. This early port, the forerunner to the modern Port of Tokyo, contributed to the development of marine transportation in Japan. Tokugawa Ieyasu made the Port of Tokyo/Edo his base, and when he became Shogun in the early 17th Century, Edo became the de facto capital of Japan and the center for the national military government. In 1612, the Tokugawa Shogunate began to rebuild the existing port by adding extensive berths and port facilities.
Throughout the 1600s, the Port of Tokyo grew rapidly, and its population exceeded a million by the beginning of the 1700s. Although Kyoto was home to the Emperor and continued to be the Imperial capital of Japan, Edo (today’s Port of Tokyo) was the financial, commercial, and power center for the country. At this time, the Port of Tokyo was an important distribution point for supplying goods to the residents of Edo, even though the port at Yokohama was the center for international trade. Development of the modern Port of Tokyo did not begin in earnest until the Meiji Period when land reclamation and dredging projects began.
Commodore Perry arrived at Tokyo Bay, and the Shogunate began to build gun batteries at the harbor. In 1858, theU.S.-Japan Amity and Commerce Treaty opened five ports and two cities in Japan to foreign trade and international contact after a long period of isolation.
After over two and a half centuries of military rule, the Tokugawa Shogunate was overthrown, and Imperial rule was restored. Emperor Meiji moved to Edo in 1869, and the Edo Castle became the Imperial Palace. The City of Tokyo was established. The Port of Tokyo was the national capital until the municipality was abolished and merged with the Metropolitan Prefecture of Tokyo in 1943.
In 1880, the prefecture’s Governor proposed modern improvements to the Port of Tokyo. The first phase, located at the Sumida River estuary, began operating in 1906. The Port of Tokyo experienced two significant disasters in the 20th Century. In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquakekilled about 140 thousand people. The earthquake enhanced the Port of Tokyo’s value, as overland transportation had been severely damaged. In 1925, the modern Hinode Terminal was completed. The Shibaura Terminal began operating in 1932, and the Takeshiba Terminal was finished in 1934. In 1941, the Port of Tokyo was proclaimed an international port.
From the time of the Great Kanto Earthquake until World War II, full-scale construction of the Port of Tokyo was undertaken. Completion of the Hinode, Takeshiba, and Shibaura Terminals laid the foundation for the modern Port of Tokyo. Unfortunately, the growth of the port came to a halt when Allied Forces requisitioned the Port of Tokyo after World War II.
In 1945, the city was bombed mercilessly by the Allies, and as many as 200 thousand people were killed while half of the city was destroyed. After World War II, the Port of Tokyo was completely rebuilt and continued to flourish. Allied forces, however, took over the Port of Tokyo. After the war, redevelopment of the Port of Tokyo as an international trade port was vitally important to post-war reconstruction of Japan and the re-establishment of domestic industry.
In 1950, the Toyosu Coal Terminal began operations, and the Port Law was promulgated by the Japanese government. In 1951, the Port of Tokyo was designated a major port and placed under the administration of the Port of Tokyo’s metropolitan government. In 1955, the Harumi Terminal’s public Berth No. 1 began operations.
The Shinagawa Container Terminal was completed in 1967, and the first container ship, the Hawaiian Planter, arrived at the Port of Tokyo. At that time, regular container routes were established with the United States’ West Coast. Regular container routes were established with Europe in 1971. By 1974, the Cargo Terminal had been completed, and ferry operations were underway at three berths in the Port of Tokyo. By 1975, all eight berths serving the Oi Container Terminal were finished.
In the latter half of the 20th Century, the Port of Tokyo’s subway and rail network was one of the world’s busiest. A real estate bubble that grew during the 1980s burst early in the 1990s, bringing a major recession to the Port of Tokyo that lasted until the beginning of the 21st Century.
In 1991, the modern Port of Tokyo celebrated its 50th Anniversary, and the Harumi Passenger Ship Terminal opened for business. In 1993, Tokyo Bay’s famous landmark, the Rainbow Bridge, was completed. In 1993 and 1994, Berths 2 and 3 of the Aomi Container Terminal went into operation.
In 1995, the Tokyo Waterfront New Transit’s Yurikamome line began operations from the Port of Tokyo, and passenger traffic increased rapidly. The same year, the Takeshiba Passenger Ship Terminal was completed. In 1996, increased passenger traffic led to the addition of new trains to the Waterfront Yurikamome rail line to serve the many restaurants, shops, and commercial establishments being built in the Port of Tokyo’s waterfront area.
In 2001, the Port of Tokyo celebrated 60 years of operations as a modern port, and a new logo was created to commemorate the port’s success. In the first decade of the 21st Century, the Oi Container Terminal has continued to grow with new berths, and the Yurikamome rail line has been extended as far as Toyosu Station. In 2008, the Port of Tokyo was recognized for handling the largest volume of import/export cargo in the nation for nine consecutive years. In 2008, the metropolitan government of the Port of Tokyo entered into a cooperative agreement with Yokohama City and Kawasaki City to jointly promote the area.